I was actually in search of these questions How Dark Web Works?, How Tor is used to access Dark Web? How websites are hosted on the dark web. May you feel some of these questions are errelevent. But that only because of my inadequate knowledge in this area. My curiosity made me ask these quiestians. Finally, during a discussion on Reddit, i got a detailed summary that satisfied me loot and sharing it with my fellow readers.
Reff. the image for a basic Idea on Dark Web
The “Dark Web”, is really just like the normal worldwide web that you and I are using right now, in that it is made up of interconnected hosts that serve data. In order to connect to a machine using the world wide web, you need to know its Internet Protocol address. This can be found by directly looking it up, or using DNS. This is where we reach the difference between the normal internet and the dark web. The difference is how clients find and connect to their servers.
The dark web is made up of interconnected darknets. These are computers that host some sort of data, whether it would be a website or an IRC channel. However, when the computer hosts this data, it gets forwarded to the TOR network or The Onion Router. This is basically the World Wide Web for the dark web. Tor is a peer-to-peer network that forwards traffic among darknets.
How does one access data hosted by darknets? Well, obviously the client has to connect to the TOR network as well. Let’s assume the client is trying to connect to a darknet website. They are prompted to enter a cryptographic URL for the darknet website they want to access. This address is generated by the website itself. Instead of using a centralized DNS protocol, we instead use Public-Private key authentication to verify that a darknet service is authentic. When the user enters this URL, the TOR network creates a path from the client to the darknet service.
Ok, so how does TOR connect clients to servers? So there are multiple parts to this, really. The first step is to connect to a relay, which is a specialized darknet, TOR, service. With 3 relays daisy-chained together, clients’ traffic is passed around from one host to another, which obscures the origin of the client. The final stop is the exit node, which connects the client’s traffic to the darknet service.
Finally, how is a darknet service created? Well, it’s pretty simple. All you need is to install the Tor daemon, which is very simple on OS’s like Linux. This is a program that listens for any traffic on a configured port, and forwards it to the Tor network. So in order to get a dark web website running, I would need to configure this daemon to listen to port 80 on my localhost, and forward it to the tor p2p network. However, as I mentioned earlier, the Tor network needs to authenticate my darknet service. See, what makes Tor special is that I can essentially make my own domain name for my tor service, and let everyone use it. With the clearnet, you’re obviously not allowed to do this, and you would need to go through a domain registrar. Tor verifies darknet services by essentially matching the onion link (the domain), with the darknet service’s private key.
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